Clinical practice recommendations for native vitamin D therapy in children with chronic kidney disease Stages 2-5 and on dialysis.

gr2Shroff R1, Wan M1, Nagler EV2, Bakkaloglu S3, Fischer DC4, Bishop N5, Cozzolino M6, Bacchetta J7, Edefonti A8, Stefanidis CJ9, Vande Walle J10, Haffner D11, Klaus G12, Schmitt CP13; European Society for Paediatric Nephrology Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorders and Dialysis Working Groups. Author information


Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent and often severe in children and adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although native vitamin D {25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]} is thought to have pleiotropic effects on many organ systems, its skeletal effects have been most widely studied.

The 25(OH)D deficiency is causally linked with rickets and fractures in healthy children and those with CKD, contributing to the CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) complex. There are few studies to provide evidence for vitamin D therapy or guidelines for its use in CKD. A core working group (WG) of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs have developed recommendations for the evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in children with CKD. We present clinical practice recommendations for the use of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in children with CKD Stages 2-5 and on dialysis. A parallel document addresses treatment recommendations for active vitamin D analogue therapy. The WG has performed an extensive literature review to include meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in healthy children as well as children and adults with CKD. In the absence of applicable study data, the opinion of experts from the ESPN CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs is provided, but clearly GRADE-ed as such and must be carefully considered by the treating physician, and adapted to individual patient needs as appropriate.


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