Rituximab and hepatitis B reactivation in HBsAg-negative/ anti-HBc-positive kidney transplant recipients.

nrclinonc.2012.1 f1Lee J1,2, Park JY3,4, Huh KH1,2,5, Kim BS4,5,6, Kim MS1,2,5, Kim SI1,2,5, Ahn SH3,4, Kim YS1,2,5.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-known complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Although rituximab is increasingly used for desensitization of ABO-incompatible or positive crossmatch kidney transplantation, the risk of HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative/hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive kidney transplant patients receiving rituximab desensitization remains undetermined.

METHODS:

We analysed 172 resolved HBV patients who underwent living donor kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Patients were divided into rituximab ( n  =  49) or control ( n  =  123) groups. All patients were observed for HBV reactivation, which was defined as the reappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen or HBV DNA.

RESULTS:

During the follow-up period (median, 58 months; range, 4-95 months), five patients (10.2%) in the rituximab group and two patients (1.6%) in the control group experienced HBV reactivation (P   =   0.003). In the rituximab group, two patients experienced HBV-related severe hepatitis, and one patient died due to hepatic failure. The median time from rituximab desensitization to HBV reactivation was 11 months (range, 5-22 months). By contrast, no patients in the control group experienced severe hepatitis. The status of hepatitis B surface antibody was similar between groups. Rituximab desensitization [hazard ratio (HR), 9.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74-48.86; P   =   0.009] and hepatitis B surface antibody status (HR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.05-21.23, P =   0.04) were significant risk factors for HBV reactivation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Rituximab desensitization for incompatible kidney transplantation significantly increased the risk of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients. Therefore, close monitoring of HBV DNA is required in these patients.

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